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As the term "argumentative essay" may suggest, it is an opinion establishing writing piece. It is a not a debate, but can be understood as a report of a debate written by a person convinced by one of the speaker.It is an attempt to persuade an opposing audience to adopt new ideology. The primary objective is to influence people so as to change beliefs that many of them are unwilling to change at present.
The introduction to an argumentative essay is unlike any other essay, luring thereader to get involved into it. This is because since the reader's attention is grabbed, the involvement of their thought process while reading an argumentative essay increases its effectiveness. To ensure this the initial sentence should be catchy enough to acts as a "Hook". Use of literary devices such as satire and simple sarcasm work as effective "hooks".
This should be followed by the background of the topic in discussion without presenting your stand. Then it must be discussed why the issue is relevant in the present day, who all it impacts and where should it be acted upon. Then you should present your stand along with your reason to do so. The background lays a setup for the claims to come.
The first major element in this essay form is to present your arguments. As a convention, generally 3-4 arguments are presented so that the readers don't get so much of information that they can't process it. Thus, only the major and most influential arguments should be picked. Arguments in an essay are different from a debate in the sense that, arguments of a debate should have verbal influence which is not the case in essay. Instead, the arguments must make an impact upon reading in an argumentative essay.
Every argument has two components; a claim and its evidence. A claim is a statement in support of the argument you make. Independently, a claim has no impact because it cannot make majority of the people believe in the argument. However, a claim supported with an evidence, particularly with facts makes a strong statement in itself. These evidences should be from a reliable source and the source should also be mentioned to support the evidence.
The second major element in this essay is countering opponent's claims. Two counter claims are sufficient in a regular essay unless specified. Here rebuttal is offered to the claims of the opponent. However, it must be ensured that the evidence is very strong in order to execute the refutation. Although the rebuttal is a counter statement, the tone of the essay should be bold but not harsh even in refutation.
The third major element is an establishing conclusion. It is very essential to bind both the arguments and the refutations to create a strong impact. Thus, the point of the argument must be reinstated. This should be followed by your own perception onn how the world would be a better place, if your viewpoint is implemented. This enables the reader to visualize your viewpoint and believe in it.